Stove heating integration into power system under the condition of strict ecological requirements
Stove heating integration into power system under the condition of strict ecological requirements
Ursula Gertrud von der Leyen, head of Eurocommission, declared the necessity of solving one of the main tasks of EU, ecological problem of greenhouse effect.
The following summary was taken from the article of ArunMajumdar, Director ofARPA-E.
Wide use of fossil fuel has contributed a lot for economic growth but nevertheless our dependence on it is a threat for our national and ecological safety due to the growing dependence on foreign energy as well as climate change. Common business is not a choice because the result will be a destructive one. This is correct not only for the USA but also for all the nations of the world. The nation that managed to achieve a successful growth of economy due to the use of efficient types of energy, clean internal energy supply and smart energy infrastructure will become world leader of the 21st century. We are lagging behind in many cases. We, as a nation, must change the course immediately, without any delay.
Mass manifestations of people regarding environmental conditions and natural disasters inspired me to write this article.
At present due to strict ecological requirements with regard to stove heating in EU, the U.S.A and other countries an issue is raised about survival of stove heating. Stove manufacturers producing factory readymade stoves and organizations dealing with fossil fuel are interested in elimination of competitors.
In order to survive and develop stove heating further we have to defend. We have such possibilities.
New method of fuel combustion
Nature of the Earth is created by higher intelligence; everything is balanced in it, self-adjusted and optimal. The man is also a part of nature and is created by it. The man must study the laws of nature and follow them. In our activities we are trying to follow this principle.
Russian scientist and metallurgist, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences, Professor Grum-Grzhimailo Vladimir Efimovich (1864-1928) laid the basics of the theory of free gas movement.
The main idea of this theory is very simple. A jet of hot gas surrounded by cold gas being more light flows up and cold gas being heavy goes down. V. Е. Grum Grzhimailo while designing a stove recommended in every part of the stove creation of such direction of gas movement that would correspond to their natural movement:the jet of hot gas should be directed upwards and the cold gas – downwards. In stoves with forced gas movement, this is not observed: cooling gases alternately go up and then down. Hot gases that flow from the firebox into the stove volume being light are collected under the furnace vault, thus forming, as Grum Grzhimailo puts it, «a sack of hot gases». Cold gases being heavier flow down to the lower part of the stove and if they are not removed, they will form
«a sack of cold gases» there. Therefore, gas exhaust from the stove shall always be done in the lower part where cold gases are collected. Stoves built on the basis of this principle do not need forced gas movement, gas movement is performed due to natural forces of nature.
However, the issue of free gas movement in the firebox has not been solved until now. I managed to solve this problem. I invented and patented new "Method of fuel combustion". The firebox is placed in the bell and is connected with it by means of a crevice 2-3 cm wide (dry joint). Gas flow movement in each part of heat generators made in the form of a bell is performed due to heat exchange processes. Hot particles go upward and cold ones go down. The system of free gas movement (Kuznetsov system). It shall be pointed out thatsuch name is present in the documents of Ministry Of Energy of Russia. This provides unlimited possibilities of constructing ecologically friendly and efficient heat generators of different functional purpose and power.
The main idea of combustion is that gas separation with regard to the heating degree takes place already in the firebox. In stoves with forced gas movement (ПДГ) hot gases come into the chimney. In Kuznetsov Free Gas Movement system the heat of hot gases is not lost. Hot gases go up into the bell and after they have given off their heat, they go down along the bell walls.
Flammable substances, hydrocarbon(С+Н2) go along the center of the firebox. Hot (СО2, Н2О) and ballast gases appear when secondary air impacts on it. Ballast gases being cold, go down and exhaust into the upper bell, smoke chamber or pipe. When oncoming flows of hydrocarbon and flue gas (СО2, Н2О) are moving, exothermal redox reactions take place. All conditions are available, these are oxidizing and reducing agents and the required temperature.
When carbon (С):(СО2, Н2О) interacts with oxygen of the air
С+О2=СО2; 2С+О2=2СО, air gas appears with water vapors;
С+Н2О=СО+Н2+2802 kcal/nm3, +2Н2О=СО2+2Н2+1714 kcal/nm3, water gas appears; in this case no heat is used for water vapor formation as water vapor is the product of fuel combustion reaction. This is an isothermal reaction:
with carbon dioxide С+СО2=2СО carbon monoxide appears.
The gases are burnt with extraction of additional heat as long as volatile gases (hydrocarbon) are extracted.
In thermo-chemical equations one should consider in what condition the substance is (liquid, solid or gaseous). Therefore one and the same reaction may have a different thermal effect depending on the phase condition of the substance. In the above given equations carbon is in solid state and requires preliminary heating, that is the reaction is an exothermic one. In our method of fuel combustion carbon of fuel, hydrocarbon and also СО2, Н 2О do not require energy for preliminary heating. The reaction in this case is an exothermic one. The obtained carbon monoxide СО will be burnt with heat extraction: СО+1/2О2=СО2+3018 kcal/nm3 СО. In contact zones of oncoming flows turbulent movement takes place, diffusion, therefore the mixture of substances will be a homogeneous one, ready to be burnt.
Redox reactions are anti-parallel chemical reactions that proceed with a change of oxidation level of atoms present in reagents (or ions of the substance). The reduction-oxidation processes proceed at the same time and cannot occur independent of each other.
Redox reactions that are running in the bell can contain different reducers and oxidizers and can be expressed by different chemical equations and have different results.
The most important reducers are:
metals; hydrogen H2; carbon C; carbon monoxide (II) CO; hydrogen sulphide H2S, sulphides K2S; hydrogen halides HI, HBr; ammonia NH3.
The most important oxidizers are:
halogens F2, Cl2; oxygen O2, ozone O3; potassium KMnO4;
nitric acid HNO3 and its salts KNO3; concentrated sulfuric acid H2SO4; metal ions.
IT SHALL BE POINTED OUT THAT IN KUZNETSOV SYSTEM OF FREE GAS MOVEMENT THE ISSUE OF NEUTRALIZATION OF HARMFUL FOR ECOLOGY GAS СО2 (GREENHOUSE EFFECT) IS SOLVED SIMPLY. Kuznetsov system of Free Gas Movement is APPLICABLE FOR FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION, INCLUDING INDUSTRIAL PURPOSE FUEL AND GASIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE.
It is possible to arrange 1, 2, 3 or more bells of various form and volume around the firebox, each of the bells shall be connected with the firebox by means of dry joint. Each bell is provided with an exit to the upper located bell or smoke chamber of the chimney equipped with a damper. Different heat exchangers of various purposes, like boiler or retort can be installed in each bell for gasification of municipal solid waste, chamber for food preparation, tank for stones heating to be used in a bath, a device for water condensation in places with insufficient amount of water, etc. This allows to regulate temperature required as per the technological process round the clock in any bell simply by using dampers. For example, maintain the required temperature in bread chamber of professional ovens for restaurants and roadside cafes round the clock. In this case the stove will heat the building in winter and ventilate it in summer. All operations can be automated. There is a possibility to control pyrolysis process of wood in each cycle, which is very important for receiving high quality charcoal. All operations can be automated.
It is also possible to install several fireboxes with dry joint in one bell, different as per functional purposes of stoves (heat generators). This provides a possibility for creating multifunctional complexes of various purposes operating on one chimney. Each stove can operate separately or all of them can operate together.
I am trying to realize all my theoretical assumptions in practice and confirm them by tests, if possible. For this purpose I built a lab and a stove in my village and purchased the necessary equipment made in Germany. In accordance with my request Department of Nuclear Power and Renewable Energy of Ural Federal University will also take part in this job. 20 years ago the head of the department and me tried to get a support of our system at the government of Sverdlovsk oblast but failed. The work has been carried out together with socially-oriented Noncommercial PartnershipDevelopment of Kuznetsov Stove System of which I'm the Chairman of the Board. We carried out many experiments and tests of household stoves.
Ukrainian scientists, for example Professor of Kiev Polytechnical Institute and Swedish Royal University, Ph.D. I.V. Kazachkov and Assistant Professor, Ph.D. Ju. N. Kamaev took part in this work. Computer modeling of heat exchanging processes and calculation of heat balance of a 15kW boiler has been carried out using Solid Works and FloWorks programs. Convection movementof heat flows through dry joint from the firebox into the bell and back has been confirmed as well as movement of hot particles in the firebox upwards along the center and cooled down particles downwards over the firebox walls. Unfortunately, instead of the real combustion process a stationary heat source had to be used.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set the rules limiting the quantity of solid particles, which each power generator is allowed to exhaust through its chimney. As of May 2019 the limit in the U.S.A. is 4,5 g per hour. Since 15.05.2020 the new limit will be 2 g/h and 2,5 g/h depending on test report being used by the manufacturers.
Similar requirements are set by EC Directive 2009/125 / of European Parliament and Council of October 21st, 2009 regarding requirements connected with local heating devices using solid fuel, https://eur-ex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2015/1185/oj
Until January 1st, 2022 member states may allow placement on the market and putting into operation of local heating devices operating on solid fuel, which correspond to national provisions in force regarding efficiency of energy use for seasonal heating of buildings.
Since January 1st, 2022 emissions of :
solid particles (SP):
40 mg / m 3 at 13% O 2, wood burning stove;
20 mg / m 3 at 13% O 2; pellet stoves.
carbon monoxide (СО):
1 500 mg / m 3 at 13% O 2 wood burning stove;
300 mg /m 3 at 13% O 2 pellet stoves.
nitrogen oxides (NO x):
200 mg / m 3, expressed as NO 2 at 13% O 2 stoves and ovens using biomass;
300 mg / m 3, expressed as NO 2 at 13% O 2 stoves using solid fossil fuel.
Same requirements will be introduced in Russia one day (greenhouse effect). In the existing system of fuel combustion (Forced gas movement) in case of mass use of stoves and boilers such a result will be impossible to achieve.
We have elaborated a conception of unified firebox that made it possible to achieve an incredibly high efficiency and purity of fuel combustion. I think we have already achieved the limit. The flame is transparent, clean and yellow. No smoke. Please look here: http://eng.stove.ru/fotovideo/video_raznoe/pechi_s__kaminnoy_dverkoykd and here, http://eng.stove.ru/fotovideo/raznyie_fotografiy .
In Kuznetsov system of Free Gas Movement we have learnt how to make stoves and we make stoves in which we separate carbon dioxide (СО2) from smoke gases and use it in practice, for example in vegetary (winter greenhouse, for nutrition of plants). We built a stove for burning ceramics. Using birch wood we managed to achieve temperature over 1000 Соin the chamber. The stove is still in operation at present.
Important! During combustion of fossil fuel in our system, СО2 does not exhaust into the chimney, as the case is with the system of Forced Gas Movement, but comes into the bell where reduction-oxidation process and its neutralization take place; it doesn't exert any influence on creation of greenhouse effect. Unlike Kuznetsov Free Gas Moving system, American and German technologies of СО2 separation are complex and expensive.
I have done a lot of work regarding gasification of fuel and charcoal and achieved a practical result. However, practical laboratory work, research and tests have to be conducted.
President of Russia set a task of national level - to provide the country by 2020 with ecologically friendly domestic foodstuff and implement new technologies in agro-industrial complex.
We responded to the appeal. On the basis of Kuznetsov Free Gas Movement system many issues are being solved. In particular, I am the author of invention of «Sunny vegetary (winter greenhouse) in Russia, RU 2638533.
(Sunny Vegetaria Kuznetsova. Patent of the Russian Federation 2638533, December 14, 2017)
The invention is designated for all year round use without using any energy in the vast middle part of the territory of Russia, including northern territories. It is intended for maximum use of local fuel resources in the stove. Vegetary comprises a green house and a block of agrotechnical technologies and product processing separated by stove-wall that provides heating in each part, the necessary microclimate, ventilation, subsoil irrigation of root system, provision with carbon dioxide and gas exchange.The stove-wall performs the above functions in summer due to sun energy and due to fuel combustion in winter.
On the basis of these patents technologists propose organization of eco-farms of various sizes. Personal subsidiary plots; Small-/medium-size farming; Medium-/large-size eco business. Energy-independent eco farm provides for a large variety of plant growing all year round as well as cattle breeding and processing of various products. Stove-wall can also operate on natural gas, in this case gas consumption is reducedand useful functions are preserved as is the case of wood burning stoves.
Having in mind low cost and quick return on investment for construction of eco farms, low employment in the countryside, one can build eco farms of various sizes: Personal subsidiary plots; Small-/medium-size farming; Medium-/large-size eco business. In order to be capable to construct eco farms, a private or state-owned organization shall be created. Besides construction it shall provide financing at the early stage of construction and production organization, product sale and arrange leasing to those who are interested to start their own business. The issue concerning wood provision shall be solved by planting quick-growing bush.
We built a vegetary-laboratory 8х12 m consisting of two sections 6х8m each using our own money. The stove length is 8 m. We put the vegetary into operation, everything works. We are not experts in agriculture technologies and have no service personnel. We planted some tomatoes and cucumbers. Impenetrable thickets have grown. We suggested carrying out further tests, debugging and checking of agro technologies together with the Ural State Agrarian university.
We did not receive their support. It is possible that corporations dealing with fossil fuel production and use don't like what we do. The same can be said about manufacturers of factory-made stoves. They don't like competitors building stoves while there is a lot of natural gas available. We are serious competitors for people dealing with gasification of Russia. If officials adopt our system , they will lose their profit. We can provide the population living on a vast rural areaof Russia with efficient multipurpose and ecologically friendly stoves and boilers. At the moment the demand for such stoves and boilers is very high in Russia. Some other countries are also interested. State expenditures for this project and operation will be significantly less.
Conception of the unified firebox operating on wood that was elaborated recently allows its use for heat generators of any capacity. I think that all of them are capable of efficient and pure combustion in accordance with the amount of solid particles prescribed byU.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and EC requirements. No need to test or certify each heat generator as it is the case for each manufacturer in the U.S.A. It is necessary to elaborate standards for unified firebox for different types of fuel.
It is necessary to work out a standard of test for efficiency as per direct balance (definition of heat transfer from the stove surface). When the Ural Federal University have been carrying tests of our stoves as per direct and return balance the difference in the efficiency was significant. In calculation as per direct balance heat content of fuel exceeded its calorific value.
COMPARE combustion in our boiler ( bottom right picture) with combustion in traditional boiler with heat exchanger in the firebox (upper right picture). The same wet wood was used in both cases.
What is the furnace Igor Kuznetsov, in brief?
In accordance with direction of administration of the President conducted examination of patent "Method of fuel combustion" taking into consideration our achievements in practice. I received a letter from Ministry of Energy of Russia No.02-540 of 12.12.2018, in which they thanked me for active civil position and recommended sending the respective proposal to development institutes, which key activity is encouraging of development of innovations, financing of scientific research and development work as well as support of their implementation in industrial production, including JSC , JSC RBK, Scolkovo Fund, Industry Development Fund, Foundation for the Promotion of Development of Small Forms of Enterprises in the Scientific and Technical Field. We got no support. They propose a credit at 10% per year.
Department of Nuclear Power and Renewable Energy of Ural Federal University together with socially oriented Noncommercial Partnership Development of system of Kuznetsov Stoves carried out a lot of experiments and tests of household stoves. An official positive conclusion is available. PROSPECTS FOR USE OF MULTIBELL STOVES FOR HEATING OF DECENTRALIZED CONSUMERS. (PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF BELL-TYPE FURNACES FOR HEATING OF DECENTRALIZED CONSUMERS). http://eng.stove.ru/stati/perspektivyi
We also considered an issue of lighting the vegetary on the basis of transferring heat into electricity and applied to a company in St. Petersburg, which manufactures thermo-electrical devices of small capacity on the basis of Peltier elements, with a request to consider a possibility of producing elements of larger capacity. Using our system we can obtain a difference in temperature between the lower and the upper part of the element of 400-500 degrees Celsius on the square of approximately 1 square meter. They seem to have no interest doing this.
A thermoelectric generator was developed in Massachusetts University of Technology and in Company GMZ Energy. /action.redirect/url/aHR0cDovL2VsZWN0cmlrLmluZm8vbWFpbi9uZXdzLzk0Ni1lZmZla3Rpdm5vZS1wcmVvYnJhem92YW5pZS10ZXBsYS10ZXJtb2dlbmVyYXRvci1nbXotZW5lcmd5Lmh0bWw=. The newest modification of thermoelectric generator is capable to withstand heating of its upper part up to 600 degrees Celsius wit temperature at its bottom part of 100 degrees Celsius. The difference of 500 degrees allows conversion of 7, 2 Wt power at the square of device of only 4 sq cm. Some time ago under the support of US Department of Energy, the scientists presented a large generator of 200 Watt.
In our system we have large prospects to obtain electricity using our heat generators (stoves) with participation of above organizations. At the same time using thermoelectric generator does not decrease stove efficiency. It will be in demand.
I have designed a small gas-generator boiler that consists of the firebox and three bells. In one bell a boiler is installed, the other two contain retorts for euro bales of straw 40х40х80 cm. We can also put civil solid waste in metal grids into the retorts. By opening cover you can put a metal grid. It can be used in private household for heating and hot water supply instead of bringing solid waste for recycling. Department of Nuclear Power and Renewable Energy of Ural Federal University (UFU) considered the project and approved it but found no finance.
Together with me, a group of high quality stove makers who I have taught and prepared are employees of Noncommercial partnership. We have many orders on hand for stoves and boilers of different functional purpose. New tasks constantly arise, and we solve them and implement in practice.
We performed some tests together with UFU. This is engine of progress. The works were performed at my own costs. We conduct workshops in Russia and in many European countries, in which there are many of my pupils. There also some companies that manufacture stoves as per our system. http://stove.ru/seminary. Our pupils received several awards in Sweden and Poland. I also received an award Phenomenon of the Year in Poland. At present there are many skilled teams of stove builders, our followers, in Poland, Lithuania, Italy, Ukraine and other countries. In 2008 I was invited to the USA to conduct a workshop to the Masonry Heater Association of North America and acquaint them with our work experience in construction of stoves and boilers. They granted me a Certificate., which is attached.
CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION This certificate is awarded to IGOR KUZNETSOV in recognition of valuable contributions to THE MASONRY HEATER ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA.
In following years there were many workshops conducted by American masonry heaters regarding stove and boiler construction, the drawings of which you can see at my site for free. On site of the Masonry Heater Association of North America many drawings of modern stoves, boilers and theoretical works could be seen (provided by me). They were recommended by EPA. Much of the material is being implemented. Some stove makes constructed the stoves themselves, without workshops, for example: /action.redirect/url/aHR0cHM6Ly9wZXJtaWVzLmNvbS90LzIxMDk3L1NlZWtpbmctbWFzb25yeS1oZWF0ZXItcGxhbnM= Kathy Curtis. Today, of course, we are much ahead in our system development. You can access to some of my works that are implemented in practice on MHA site.
What should we do for integration of stove heating into power system under the condition of strict ecological requirements
The problem is that the METHOD OF FUEL COMBUSTION RU2553748C1 IGOR KUZNETSOV disproves the laws of heat engineering that have been taught in various universities all over the world for many years. Find a possibility of neutralization of carbon dioxide that is the cause of the green house effect. To obtain an efficiency of heat generators exceeding above 100 %. Significantly decrease the emission of solid particles, and carbon oxide into the atmosphere during combustion of fossil fuel. Find a possibility of creation of a great number of heat generators necessary and useful for society, etc. This is a real fact confirmed by respective authorized organizations and practice. Some scientists don't even want to understand the issue. They reject it without thinking, although they cannot create something similar in practice.
International support and publicity is necessary. The results of our tests performed together with Ural Federal University and approved be the Ministry of Energy of Russia should be either confirmed or disproved. The society is on the verge of collapse due to green house effect and change of climate. Our proposals for solving the problem relative the cost are NEGLIGIBLE. Why not trying, especially when people in many countries use our SYSTEM, also in the U.S.A.
I appeal to people having access to deputies, journalists, scientists, mass media lawmakers, authorities to ask them for help us in solving the above issues.
To begin with, we need a lab where we can build any heat generator (stove) with a unified firebox using wood for burning, conduct experiments and tests for particle emission of СО and СО2. Perform tests for efficiency as per direct balance (heat transfer from the surface) and return balance. Develop standards for unified firebox and its test as per direct balance and certify it. Wood with a large amount of volatile gases shall be used as fuel.
Build a boiler with unified firebox using wood for fuel. Perform the same jobs as in the first case.
After that, perform the same using fossil fuel with another design of the firebox for each type of fuel. Perform the necessary tests and experiments and eliminate drawbacks.
I am interested in the same job using a small gas generator boiler using euro bales of straw or municipal waste as fuel. Much work shall be done in regard to Vegetary (winter greenhouse)
Articles in internet written in English:
- Household stove systems, their features and differences , http://eng.stove.ru/stati/sistemyi_byitovyih_pechey_ih_priznaki_i_razlichiya
- What is the furnace Igor Kuznetsov, in brief http://eng.stove.ru/stati/chto_takoe_pechi_ivkuznetsova_sokraschenno
- Eco farm on the basis of VEGEWTARY in brief,
I don't speak English myself
- Perspektivi UrFU
- Work in sun vegetary
- I. V. Kuznetsov
Pobedy Street, 51-87
Phone. 8(343) 3077303 (Home).
Igor V. Kuznetsov, Chairman of the Board of noncommercial partnership "The Development of Kuznetsov stove systems", 620143, Pobedy str., 51, room 87, Ekaterinburg, Russia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org . Ph.: +7(912)2880065