(RUS) Presentation of the SDG system in Word
The SDG system presentation in Word
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The SDG system presentation in Word.
The nature of the earth is created by the Principal Reason, in her everything is balanced, itself it is regulated and it is optimum. The person is itself a part of the nature and is created by her. Therefore to the person it isn't allowed to create something more perfect. He has to reveal laws of the nature, study and follow them. We in all the activity try to follow this principle.
Now at combustion of any fuel in a fire chamber of any kind at all types of furnace processes (layered, torch, vortex) when using air as oxidizer a main objective is to reduce influence of ballast gases on which amount heat content of products of combustion of fuel, temperature of a stream in which fuel combustion conditions worsen depends.
For this purpose use:
Minimize amount of the given air at which there is no incomplete combustion of fuel, and there is no excessive amount of air.
Our system assumes other mechanism of reduction of influence of ballast gases on process of combustion of fuel, and also uses of the generated heat. It is based on natural laws of the nature.
The foundation of the theory of the free movement of gases was laid by the Russian scientist, the metallurgist, the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, professor Grum-Grzhimaylo Vladimir Efimovich (1864-1928). Further, work on improvement of system of furnaces on the principle of "free movement of gases (FMG)" was carried out by the pupil and follower Grum-Grzhimaylo, Candidate of Technical Sciences Podgorodnikov (Podgorodnik) Iosif Samuilovich (1886-1958). He has suggested to build furnaces according to the scheme "two level cap".
I studied on Podgorodnikov I.S. works.
The main idea which is the cornerstone of the theory of SDG, formulated by V.E. Grum-Grzhimaylo following:
The stream of hot gas in an environment of cold emerges up as easier. At design of the furnace in each her part to set such direction of the movement of gases which would answer their natural aspiration, hot gas up, and streams cooled down.
In the works V.E. Grum-Grzhimaylo and I.S. Podgorodnikov didn't manage to resolve the most important issue of the organization of the natural movement of gases in the furnace camera according to this classical definition.
On the drawing the Grum-Grzhimaylo furnace is shown.
The natural movement of hot gases in the furnace camera can be provided only in the heatgenerator constructed on the formula patented by me:
The lower tier and fire chamber are united in uniform space and make the lower cap.
The cap, is the vessel turned upside down. In him cold particles are pushed out down, hot emerge up. This formula provides obligatory existence of "a dry seam". The dry seam, is the vertical crack 2-3 cm wide connecting a fire chamber and a cap. The fire chamber can be various, both on design, and by the principle of combustion of fuel. Fuel can be burned any.
It is about combustion of fuel in the fire chamber placed in a cap and integrated with him through a vertical crack of 2-3 cm (a dry seam) in uniform space.
Such construction allows to create also in a cap, and a condition fire chamber in which the movement of gases answers their natural aspiration:
hot gas up, and streams cooled down.
This formula corresponds to V.E. Grum-Grzhimaylo's theory.
The novelty is that at such creation of the heatgenerator not only in a cap, but also in a fire chamber conditions for the natural movement of gases are created.
At the same time can be sustained the lower and top limit of specific thermal tension of furnace volume.
to receive from fuel the maximum quantity of heat at his burning;
to use the received warmth in the maximum volume;
the design of the heatgenerator has to meet the functional requirements and provide an optimum thermolysis.
The solution of these tasks has become possible in the system of "free movement of gases" (FMG) where the fire chamber of the heatgenerator is established in a cap and unites with him in uniform space through "a dry seam" (crack).
It is possible to burn effectively fuel, receiving from it greatest possible contained in I am mute energy, but at the same time not effectively to use this heat. On the contrary, it is possible not to withdraw fully the energy which is contained in fuel, but to effectively use it.
Therefore it is possible to consider that the efficiency of the power station develops from:
Efficiency of withdrawal of energy from fuel
Efficiency of use of the generated heat.
Use (efficiency) of the generated heat in the SDG and PDG system, and in what distinction.
The moving gas stream in the heatgenerator with any convective system, transfers thermal energy and products of combustion. To find out a difference of the mechanism of the movement of a gas stream in the systems of "compulsory movement of gases (CMG)" and SDG it is representable that a source of heat is the electric heater. In this case it isn't necessary to delete combustion products.
We will fill a cap with portion of hot air. Hot air as easier, will rise up, will force out a cold close air from a cap and there will be a long time there, won't give the heat to cap walls yet.
If the hot air generated by the electric heater C (Fig.A1) constantly moves in a Fig cap. A1, a part of warmth of a stream is perceived by walls of a cap and the heat exchanger B, placed there. If heat is generated more, than can apprehend a cap with the heat exchanger, then excess heat (the cooled air from the lower zone of a cap) is poured in the second K2 cap and from there in K3 if K2 isn't able to apprehend all heat. The movement of hot air in caps happens without draft of a pipe due to natural forces of nature and doesn't demand external energy. In the PDG system transfer of heat is possible only due to draft of a pipe.
If to pass through the lower zone of a cap a stream of hot air, at blasting (D) Fig.A2 equal to draft (T), then heat of a stream under the influence of buoyancy force rises up where there are heatexchange processes. Warmly hot air it will be transferred to walls of a cap and the heat exchanger placed in a cap, and the excess of heat (the cooled air) comes to light in K2, K3 caps, etc. if they are. Registers of a water copper can be the heat exchanger, a heater of air heating, a retort for fuel gasification, technological materials and t.p it is Theoretically possible to pick up such heat exchanger which will take away all heat. In this case it is possible to say that the efficiency of use of the generated heat will be close to 100%.
The heat transfer to the heat exchanger depends on gas: from the area of contact of heat exchange; from a difference of temperatures; from contact time (etc.). The they it is more, the more heat transfer.
The cap can have any form and volume into which it is possible to insert the heat exchanger, that is to increase heat exchange.
The same will be if to pass through the lower zone of a cap, at blasting (D) equal to draft (T), the gas stream received as a result of burning of any kind of fuel in a third-party fire chamber of any kind at all types of furnace processes when using air as Fig.A2 oxidizer. The stream contains combustion products which represent mix of various gases, including ballast. Their molecules are absolutely independent, aren't linked among themselves. Combustion reaction products: carbonic acid from combustion of carbon (CO2); water vapor from hydrogen combustion, and also ballast gases, - water vapor of fuel; nitrogen; excessive air who are harmful components of a stream as part in burning isn't taken but only they heat up due to heat of combustion of carbon and hydrogen that is take away useful heat.
This gas stream, passing through the lower part of a cap, it is divided on structure. Each particle of a gas stream has the state: the weight, temperature, energy also takes the place determined by this state for all the time of the free movement through a cap in a cap. The hot component of a stream under the influence of buoyancy force rises up, influences the heat exchanger and there is all the time there until gases are cooled. A cold, heavy and harmful component of a stream pass a cap bottom, influencing heat exchange a little. The coldest streams have the largest speed, pass a bottom of a cap and influence the heat exchanger a little. Analogy, the movement of water over a deep whirlpool at the bottom of which is "always silent".
Important conclusion follows from told: At transmission of a gas stream through a cap the efficiency of use of the generated heat as influence of ballast gases on heat exchange decreases increases.
At such creation of the heatgenerator the area of heat exchange and time of contact of hot gases with the heat exchanger increases, that is heat exchange improves. In the PDG system of it it is impossible to make. If to remove a dry seam, then all gases mix up.
In the PDG system, all products of combustion pass through the furnace camera and channels of convective system of the heatgenerator, mix up in a uniform stream, that is reduce temperature and a useful thermolysis of a stream. Driving force of a stream is the draft of a pipe. To reduce influence of this factor and to increase the efficiency of the heatgenerator it is necessary to reduce amount of ballast gases and to reduce their influence on heat exchange.
Amount of ballast gases reduce due to combustion of drier fuel, and also improvements of a smeseobrazovaniye (to reduce coefficient of excess of air - λ, without allowing incomplete combustion).
From here an important conclusion follows: Efficiency of use of the generated heat received as a result of combustion of any fuel in a fire chamber of any type when using air as oxidizer has the greatest value in the convective system executed in the form of a cap.
Withdrawal (efficiency) of energy from fuel.
For increase in overall performance of the heatgenerator, decrease in emissions in the atmosphere of harmful substances, it is necessary to provide full combustion of fuel.
4 conditions of achievement of full combustion of fuel are known:
correct device of a fire chamber;
optimum supply of primary and secondary air.
In the course of burning concentration of initial substances sharply fall: fuel and oxidizer, and also concentration of products of burning and the level of temperature sharply increase. In any system secondary air should be given above fuel, for combustion of combustible gases from thermal decomposition of fuel.
In the PDG system the movement of oxidizer and combustible gases goes in the passing direction. In process of advance the stream is more and more ballasted. In a final zone of a torch of burning concentration of fuel and oxidizer decreases. Initial substances are separated by a large number of products of combustion. The possibility of fast engagement of the reacting molecules considerably is at a loss. In this case it is important to excite intensive turbulence of a stream that is shown the drawing.
It is necessary to provide also in full burning process with air, having finished his quantity to optimum (to minimize) at which there is no incomplete combustion of fuel and its excessive quantity.
However anyway in a fire chamber there will be an excessive air, nitrogen and water vapor of fuel which reduce temperature of a stream in which, thereby, fuel combustion conditions worsen.
The energy which is contained in fuel isn't emitted completely, in connection with reduction of temperature of burning in a stream. And the generated heat, is used not completely as it is spent for heating of ballast gases in a stream.
From here it is possible to draw an important conclusion:
To increase the efficiency of withdrawal of energy from fuel it is necessary to reduce influence of ballast gases on furnace process, to increase burning temperature.
In power stations of the PDG system there is no place for placement of heat exchangers that conditions of combustion of fuel corresponded to conditions of use of the generated heat. At placement of heat exchangers in a fire chamber of a condition of combustion of fuel are in a conflict with heat exchange conditions. That is, the more gets heat (use efficiency increases), the fuel combustion conditions worsen more (efficiency of withdrawal of energy from fuel decreases).
The heat exchangers placed in a fire chamber (a cold kernel) reduce temperature there, that is worsen fuel combustion conditions.
At increase in the size of the area of the channel, with the purpose to place in him the heat exchanger, energy of a gas stream in him is diluted, smeared, that is temperature in a stream decreases.
It is possible to burn fuel in a cap without fire chamber. However so it is impossible to achieve good conditions of combustion of fuel: high temperature, optimum ensuring reaction of burning with air, his hashing and preliminary heating. For this reason fuel needs to be burned in the limited volume where it is possible to sustain the specified requirements.
Unlike the PDG system, in our system reaction of burning proceeds in other conditions.
The fire chamber of 1 (Fig. 3) is limited to walls from all directions, and above the catalyst (a lattice from a shamotny brick) 2. The fire chamber has "a dry seam" 3, uniting it with a cap. In walls cavities 4 through which from I blew are organized secondary air over fuel moves. The most part of secondary air is warmed up, passing through cavities in fire chamber walls, and moves at the expense of buoyancy force in a final zone of a torch of burning 5, under the catalyst. Air also moves through a crack of 25 mm before a furnace door which is especially necessary at a kindling when secondary air can't rise in cavities. In a fire chamber "cap conditions" where each particle of a gas stream has the trajectory of the movement determined by her state for all the time of the free movement through a fire chamber are created. In other words it is possible to tell that the hottest particles are in the top part, and less heated can't rise up. Secondary air comes out openings under the catalyst, gets to a zone of a cap and is pushed out down as heavy towards to a stream. By analogy, water pushes out on a surface of a particle easier her. The catalyst creates turbulence to a stream and increases temperature in a fire chamber due to reflection of beam heat.
Unlike the PDG system, the movement of oxidizer and combustible gases makes advances in the SDG system each other, at the expense of it there is a turbulence, acceleration of formation of mass contacts between molecules of fuel and oxidizer. Such nature of turbulent exchange determines the speed of formation of gas mixture, doing this zone especially important. Particles of combustible gases connect to oxygen of air and generate heat, turning into carbon dioxide and water vapor. Also combustion products are formed.
The hot component of a stream rises a cap up, forming a zone of the increased temperature there, and influences the heat exchanger placed out of a fire chamber.
Ballast gases as cold component, it is pushed out in the lower zone of a fire chamber from where come through a dry seam to a cap and further for recycling or to a pipe. Water vapor of fuel as heavy, can't rise in a burning zone. It is especially important at combustion of fuels with high content of moisture, for example brown coal which contains 45-55% of water and doesn't suit for burning in the PDG system.
In this case it is possible to give to a fire chamber bigger amount of air as it influences change of temperature in a fire chamber and a cap less.
It should be noted in this regard that the technique of test of heatgenerators of the PDG system can't be applicable for the SDG system without change.
It is also necessary to note that heat content of products of combustion of fuel in the SDG system can be higher standard due to reduction of influence of ballast gases by oxidation process.
It can be tracked on a photo "Compare".
At crude firewood the calorific ability is lower, than at dry. That is at their burning the amount of ballast gases increases.
Influence of ballast gases on process of burning and heat content of products of combustion of fuel can also be tracked on the example of combustion of acetylene during the gas-welding works.
Heat content of products of combustion of acetylene depends on a type of the applied oxidizer, that is on amount of ballast gases.
If to give to a burning zone air, instead of oxygen, then temperature of reaction of burning and energy withdrawn from acetylene will be insufficient for cutting and with
In heatgenerators of the SDG new system process of combustion of fuel is natural, we self-regulate and is optimum.
Heat exchanger arrangement in a cap out of a fuel burning zone
allows, without reducing efficiency of extraction of energy from fuel,
as much as possible to increase use of the generated heat.
Conditions of combustion of fuel improve, that is energy withdrawal efficiency increases.
Our system has gained wide circulation and development in design and construction of household furnaces and wood coppers.
She is distinguished by extraordinary flexibility that has allowed us to create already thousands of highly effective designs of household furnaces of different function.
There is a possibility of creation of infinite number of heatgenerators of various form, power and appointment, multipurpose and multystoried, including industrial type. from the unified designs of fire chambers.
It is possible to give the scheme shown in Fig. 3 as an example.
Creation of a fire chamber from heat resisting concrete or chamotte of factory production is possible. The same fire chamber can be applied in power stations of different function. It can be the grain furnace, the furnace for a bath, a heating copper, the many-tier furnace, the combined furnace with various functions, etc.
In space over the catalyst 2 now we establish:
the grain camera (in the grain furnace);
the steam generator (in the bathing furnace).
The fire chamber on the scheme is shown with symmetric releases in symmetric caps. The fire chamber can be an asymmetrical form, that is have release in one party.
Caps can have:
to be under construction of various materials;
in them various device, a copper of heating or hot water supply, a heater, etc. can be installed. The power station can have the second cap.
PS to the presentation.
The fundamental difference of two systems consists in the following.
In the PDG system of a particle of gases move on channels of convective system up, down, aside due to draft of a pipe mix up in a uniform stream.
In the SDG system of a particle of gases move through a cap (convective system) not only due to draft of a pipe, but also up to a cap at the expense of the buoyancy force of gases, and also they are influenced by the heatexchange processes happening in a cap which cool particles and change a trajectory of their movement. It isn't considered now when calculating the movement of a gas stream. Water vapor of fuel as the coldest can't rise up and moves over fuel, interacting with the heated fuel carbon.
Better to understand about what there is a speech we will remember some properties of various parts of household furnaces (heatgenerators): fire chambers and convective systems.
Main parts of furnaces of any systems:
the fire chamber (including hearth), is intended for combustion of fuel;
the convective system, is intended for accumulation and use of warmth of flue gases, defines the nature of the movement of a gas stream;
The pipe with natural draft (or mechanical blasting draft), is intended for removal of products of combustion of fuel and is the general for furnaces of any systems.
In this article work and comparison only of a fire chamber and the convective system of furnaces of the SDG and PDG various systems is considered. The pipe with natural draft is considered as the mechanism of dlyaprinuditelny removal of products of combustion of fuel in any systems and her work isn't considered.
Why in the PDG system it is impossible to create difficult multipurpose furnaces, and in the SDG system there is an opportunity to create the uncountable number of power stations of various functional purpose and power?
Heat exchange between the gas environment and a heatexchange surface depends on the following main reasons: differences of temperature, area and time of contact, material, form and mass of a heatexchange surface.
Affects the body (particle) shipped in gas gas pressure forces, equally effective which it is directed up. It is the supporting (Archimedean) force of gas.
The supporting force of gas (Fa) is equal to gas weight in volume of the body shipped in gas. Fa = ρgV, where ρ - density of gas, g - acceleration of gravity, V - the volume of the shipped body. (The elementary textbook by physics, under G.S. Landsberg's edition).
In a descending channel (the movement of gases from top to down) energy of a stream is distributed on section evenly. This phenomenon is called "self-regulation" and is explained by the fact that driving forces of gases, the draft and buoyancy force of gases, are directed in different directions. The draft is directed down, and the buoyancy force of gases up. If in any place of horizontal section of the channel temperature of a stream is higher, then there buoyancy force is more. That is in this place the braking force increases and the stream is distributed there where it is easier for it to go. Decrease in temperature on the section of the channel arises at walls of channels where there are heatexchange processes, and its value depends on material of walls and a form of the channel, etc.
The draft and buoyancy force of gases work in the ascending canal both up and develop. For this reason the movement of a stream on the section of the channel goes unevenly, it is more where it is more than temperature. Heatexchange processes on the section of the channel are distributed unevenly. Especially it concerns channels with big cross-sectional area.
At the movement of a gas stream on the channel of convective system of any direction due to draft of a pipe there is a following:
At reduction of section of the channel the gas stream is condensed, the speed of his movement, energy (temperature) increases and, as a result, heat exchange increases. In the PDG system of a particle of gases fly with high speed over a heatexchange surface of convective system due to draft of a pipe. However in this case stream friction force increases, arise noise at his movement and, eventually, the channel can't pass all volume of gas arising when burning. Here it should be noted that it concerns a case when from a fire chamber gases go one way. If there are also other ways, then gases go where it is easier for them to go and then nothing from above described happens in channel of smaller section. For example, if from a fire chamber there are two exits, then it is impossible to reduce the section of the channel under a plate because of reduction of heating of a plate;
If the channel of big section, then a stream is diluted, his speed, energy (temperature) decreases. At the same time heatexchange processes take place at small temperatures of a stream.
At big sections of vertical channels in the PDG system, a cap, comparable to horizontal section, in the SDG system, the gas stream is smeared on section, his temperature decreases, the stream is stretched due to draft of a pipe and its warmly badly accumulates in the channel. In such convective systems heat exchange isn't effective. In such channel it is impossible to place the heat exchanger that he was effective. For this reason in the PDG system it is impossible to create difficult multipurpose furnaces.
Unlike her in the SDG system the cap can be any form and volume. Energy of hot gases accumulates, concentrates in a cap. Heat exchange in a cap happens as in uniform space to a fire chamber taking into account the movement of gases through "a dry seam" (at equality of blasting draft). Heat exchange size between gas and a wall increases at increase in mass of heatexchange surfaces. It in overlappings, corners and thickenings of walls where temperature of gases decreases. Say about it also results of experiments.
The cap leaves the coldest, the gases which have given heat. It is possible to insert the heat exchanger into a cap. Time of contact of hot gases and their temperature increases. All this increases heat exchange, that is the efficiency of use of the emitted energy increases. At the same time in the top zone of a cap and at side surfaces there is a decrease in temperature of hot gases, due to effective heat exchange. It can be compared to reduction of air temperature as approaching a window and walls in winter time. It is visible on the schedule of heating of the furnace on height, the received Kolchin E.V. on tests of furnaces. The furnace has two caps. Height of the first is 2/3, and the second 1/3 heights of the furnace. The same character has the schedule distribution of temperatures of the coming-out gases on height of a dry seam. If to apply material of walls of a cap with low coefficient of heat conductivity, then temperature in the top zone will be the greatest. Effective heat exchange happens also and on cap sidewalls. It gives the chance to create the uncountable number of power stations of various functional purpose and power. Earlier it was noted that unlike the PDG system in our system use of the emitted energy approaches 100%., as particles of hot gases remain in a cap until are cooled. It belongs to a case when the heatexchange surface with the heat exchanger can apprehend more energy, than it is made by a fire chamber.
It should be noted that the difference in efficiency of furnaces of the small sizes of two systems is expressed not really brightly, in furnaces of the big sizes the difference in results of work considerably increases.
Recently in many places tests of furnaces of the SDG system in various designs are carried out. Change supply of primary and secondary air, remove a dry seam or change his sizes and a design (interrupt him), etc. Changing one, it is necessary to change also another, in particular supply of secondary air that doesn't become. Emphasis is placed on comparison of temperature in the top part of a fire chamber at various constructive decisions. In particular temperature of the coming-out gases in the top zone of the furnace with the opened or closed dry seam is measured. At the same time forget that the SDG system is not a dry seam, but a complex of actions. Purity and overall performance is reached by set of structural elements and correctness of carrying out combustion of fuel.
In certain cases temperature of gases in the top zone of the furnace without dry seam is higher due to not effective heat exchange as the furnace without dry seam already the PDG system. The increased temperature of gases in the top part of a fire chamber at the closed dry seam is explained by low heat exchange in the PDG system about what it is written earlier. Results of these experiments and tests are treated by time incorrectly, drawn the wrong conclusions, the discrediting our system, the SDG systems interfering development which is taking away development to the deadlock.
In particular it concerns the work which is carried out by the head of the technical Committee of Associations of Stove-setters of North America MNA, my pupil, the member of our partnership Alexey Chernov. To him the Association has created all conditions for work, necessary devices are provided, he has created branch of laboratory Lopez. It is difficult to overestimate importance of the work which is carried out to MNA. However I consider that the trained staff on a constant basis with connection to work of scientists has to be engaged in this work, but not assign such important question to one person at the same time living at the expense of a laying of furnaces. One of the reasons which has induced me to write "PS to the presentation", need to help him and other people to understand the nature of the movement of gas streams and heatexchange processes in various systems of furnaces was. To draw the correct conclusions from results of tests to develop, but not to slow down development of the SDG system.
In Russia the CEO of our Non-profit Partnership Kolchin E.V., and on a public basis is engaged in similar work. His work demands political and financial support, however the officials who are responsible at us in the country for development of power on the filled energy are blind and deaf to this problem, despite high practical results of application of a new Russian method of combustion of fuel in the SDG system in the different cities of Russia and the countries of the world. Moreover, it should be noted a negative contribution to development of the SDG system in Sverdlovsk region of the former governor, now the member of the Federation Council Rossel E.E. Generally in my opinion he was the strong governor who much has made for development of the region. I couldn't reach him about 10 years. Probably negative information on our furnaces of some officials to which we couldn't for the objective reasons resolve their private matters has affected. In my opinion, he can correct in some measure the error now. It is impossible to allow that the new technology of combustion of fuel which was born in Russia has died there, and I developed out of her.
In confirmation of bigger efficiency of the furnace of our system in comparison with the furnace of a countercurrent it is possible to give the following practical case. Two furnaces, the SDG systems and a countercurrent, have been constructed in the USA at MNA seminar in 2008 in which I was lucky to participate. The countercurrent furnace, has got warm much worse than our furnace even in the top part though she was flooded earlier. It is possible to look at it on photos. At our furnace people were heated, the furnace has no countercurrent. The furnace of a countercurrent worse and incorrectly warms the room. At the same time, the furnace of a countercurrent is considered the best in the class and is used more often in many developed countries of the world.
It should be noted one more important quality of the SDG system in my interpretation (Kuznetsov I.V). It is repeatedly noticed and was noted that at fall of temperature of the coming-out gases it is less than 100 °C, in a pipe there is no condensation of water vapor. This surprising property has been for the first time noticed at test of the furnace at Jeanne Claude in France by http://www.stove.ru/index.php?lng=0&rs=171. The same was noted also at other tests.
It was also required to understand and explain a difference in burning of the firewood shown in the photo "compare", and also the fact that numerous measurements of number of the constant action burned during a day of firewood in coppers showed that their energy content is less, than the energy emitted by a copper. Miracles don't happen, energy there is nothing doesn't appear. I couldn't explain these phenomena at that time.
At test of a copper in Polushkino (the settlement near Moscow), with participation of the associate professor of heattechnical faculty of UGTU-UPI, PhD in Technological Sciences of Mikula V. A., the leading expert on an energy audit of Sverdlovsk region, interesting data are obtained. The lowest working heat of combustion of 12.5 kg of the burned fuel, has made 3650 kcal/kg. The warmth which is marked out at combustion of this amount of fuel (12,5 kg) has made 3650х12,5 = 45625 kcal, and it is useful the used warmth measured at test, has made 57141 kcal, 51341 * + 5800 kcal (warmth on water heating + warmth through a brickwork envelope). That is more energy, than heat content of the burned wood is received from a copper!! If to consider taking into account the possible mistakes caused by application of a flowmeter with a high speed of the heat carrier and to lack of passport data on the thermal capacity of the heat carrier, then the efficiency of a copper can settle down in the range of values from 66 to 125% and more.
51341 * - According to the passport of a flowmeter, the range of measurement of speed of the heat carrier is 0,3-8 m/s. The flowmeter isn't calculated on our interval of the speeds of 0,1-0,22 m/s and data can't be considered as reliable. The error of measurements in this range isn't known. Only the mistake on the lower limit of measurement is known. At a speed of 0,3 m/s an error of 10%. Thus, the accuracy of definition of this warmth is doubtful.
The result of these tests can't be considered reliable, however it once again sets thinking. In a type of importance of a question this fact demands confirmation and an explanation therefore it is required to continue tests with participation of scientists of heattechnical faculty of UGTU-UPI, taking into account correction of the specified shortcomings. I and our partnership have no opportunity to finance continuation of tests. It is required means for acquisition or rent of some devices, payment of journey, accommodation and work of experts in Moscow. Sponsors are required. Gratitude and their names will be told in heading of this article.
For increase in reliability of tests of Mikul V. A. recommends the following measures: For measurement of the speed (expense) of the heat carrier it is necessary to organize compulsory circulation or to apply a flowmeter with a low speed of the heat carrier;
Exact data on structure of the heat carrier are necessary (what substances are a part and their share …);
For decrease in influence of inertness of the furnace and the system of heating it is better to increase test duration till 24 o'clock;
For more exact information on heat of combustion of firewood, it is necessary to take from a consignment of the used firewood 4 cubes (mass of 1-2 g) from different logs, to pack hermetically (in polyethylene, or in small glass jars) and then a calorimetric method to define their heat of combustion.
Now I had had a hypothesis why there are phenomena described above. In the section "Gasification" it is noted that property of coke, important for gasification, is his reactionary ability (activity), i.e. ability to interact with air oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. At impact on the heated coke of water vapor between him and carbon in a zone of gasification the following reactions proceed: With + H2O = CO + H2; and With + 2H2O = CO2 + 2H2.
On the first reaction only combustible gases turn out (50%CO and 50% of H2). Calorific ability of mix of these gases - 2802 kcal / нм3.
On the second reaction partially combustible and partially nonflammable gases (33,3% of CO2 and 66,7% of H2) turn out. Calorific ability of mix of these gases - 1714 kcal / нм3.
At more high temperatures the first reaction proceeds more intensively. At lower temperatures, - the second. Carbon monoxide restoration, or decomposition of carbon dioxide on reaction of C+CO2=2CO in our case doesn't happen because of lack of the necessary temperature of 1150 °C in a fire chamber. (D.B. Ginzburg)
Water vapor of fuel is a part of products of reaction of burning. In our SDG system water vapor of fuel, being heavy, can't rise in the top zone of a fire chamber, pass over fuel and influence the heated coals (carbon). There is a decomposition of water vapor on above to the specified reactions to release of combustible gases which are burned there. Perhaps, for this reason in a pipe there is no condensation of water vapor of fuel, and the energy content of products of combustion is higher than standard. These facts were repeatedly observed at operation of coppers of constant action. Considering their importance in increase in efficiency of use of the filled power sources, it should be confirmed or disproved tests. It is very important to check composition of the gases which are coming out on height of "a dry seam"
Burning not always proceeds up to the end, i.e. the burning-down substance not always attaches the greatest possible amount of oxygen. If process of burning hasn't ended, the combustible substances capable in addition to attach oxygen turn out, i.e. again to burn. (D.B. Ginzburg. Gasification of solid fuel. Gosstroyizdat, 1958). In a final stage of burning when in a fire chamber there are only heated coals the level of an exit of SO carbon monoxide, above admissible norms increases. It concerns heatgenerators of any systems and is confirmed by tests. At impact on the heated carbon air that occurs in a final stage of burning, in a gasification zone oxygen of air influences fuel carbon, forms carbon dioxide (a product of full combustion) and carbon monoxide (a product of incomplete combustion, combustible gas) on reactions of C+O2=CO2; 2C+O2=2CO. The raised exit of SO carbon monoxide is explained by it. SO carbon monoxide lights up at a temperature about 700 °C and burns down a blue flame on the equation: 2CO + O2 = 2CO2 + 135 kcal. There is no such temperature in a fire chamber at this time, and combustion of carbon monoxide doesn't happen.
In this case it is necessary to find other way of combustion of carbon. This way giving of a quantity of superheated water vapor in a final stage of combustion of fuel can be. Reaction of burning at low temperatures proceeds on a formula C + 2H2O = CO2 + 2H2. Hydrogen ignition temperature 350 °C (Gringauz). Such temperature, perhaps, is present at a fire chamber at this time, hydrogen burns down and release of carbon monoxide won't be. It can be confirmed or disproved only carrying out experiences which to execute I have no technical and financial capability.
In my opinion, the operating technique of test and Testo devices for the PDG system can't be applied to the SDG system as the movement of gas streams and heatexchange processes in these systems are various.
Benefits from use of heatgenerators of the SDG system are shown on the example of construction of household furnaces. They are distinguished by high efficiency, a possibility of creation of infinite number of furnaces with new functions, useful to people, the good results of tests on purity of combustion received in the different countries, the highest demand at people. And it should be noted that the ordinary multipurpose furnaces but which aren't specially prepared brought to perfection, as a result of experiments, simple heating furnaces were checked. The PDG system developed and was improved not one century, including in vitro. We should develop the SDG system without experimental works and operational development, and at own expense.
Gas generation in the SDG system.
At combustion of firewood, peat, wood processing waste, especially with the high content of moisture, it is impossible to receive high temperatures whereas at combustion of the gas received from the same fuel, such temperatures are achievable.
At combustion of solid fuel regulation of power of burning is carried out only at the expense of a smeseobrazovaniye (amount of air).
At reduction of air supply with the purpose to reduce the burning power (extent of use of the power station), not in proportion and considerably system efficiency decreases.
The highest efficiency will be at the maximum power of burning of fuel. It is possible to remove the moisture which is contained in it which is ballast from gas.
It isn't difficult to warm up gas before burning.
At combustion of gas the smaller amount of excess air, than for lumpy fuel is required thanks to what temperature of burning and as a result completeness of withdrawal of the energy which is contained in fuel increases.
It is easier to automate processes of combustion of fuel. There is an opportunity to bring closer on the level of convenience and efficiency combustion of the solid filled fuel to gas and a solyara.
It is possible to insert a retort for fuel gasification into a cap. The retort, is the metal closed volume in which fuel is put.
Process of allocation of fuel of the flying products, in retorts warmed outside without air access is called dry distillation. The calorific ability of gases of dry distillation is higher, than the generating gas received in devices with the internal heat carrier. It is the most qualitative gas.
If to heat fuel without air access, then from him vapors and gases (парогаз) called by a flying part of fuel are emitted and there is a rest firm, rich with carbon called by coke (for a tree it is charcoal). Coke is a carbon. The emitted gas and coke can be burned or used for other purposes. We will consider receiving and combustion of the emitted gas as a result of pyrolysis of wood fuel, receiving coke, and so a possibility of his burning.
Receive coke in charcoal-burning installations, burning the emitted gas. It is possible to burn completely emitted gas and coke, receiving heat (in a gas-generating copper) or other products. The difference between installation of charcoal-burning and a gas-generating copper only that in the first case only the emitted gases are burned, and in the second is burned everything.
Property of coke, important for gasification, is his reactionary ability (activity), i.e. ability to interact with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. At impact on the heated coke of water vapor between him and carbon in a zone of gasification the following reactions proceed: With + H2O = CO + H2; and With + 2H2O = CO2 + 2H2. Heat is spent for course of both reactions, and on the first it is more, than on the second.
On the first reaction only combustible gases turn out (50%CO and 50% of H2). Calorific ability of mix of these gases - 2802 kcal / нм3.
On the second reaction partially combustible and partially nonflammable gases (33,3% of CO2 and 66,7% of H2) turn out. Calorific ability of mix of these gases - 1714 kcal / нм3.
At more high temperatures in a gas generator the first reaction proceeds more intensively. At lower temperatures, - the second.
I offer three formulas of the device of installations of charcoal-burning and gas-generating heatgenerators in the SDG system. These formulas can be used for construction, both charcoal-burning installations, and gas-generating heatgenerators.
The specified formulas are my priority application for the invention of a method for creation of power stations property of the world community. The one who will want to use result of this work has to acquire on it the right and bring a payment in the international fund.
Management of fund and distribution of means from it has to be under control of the international organization and be used on development of "The system of the free movement of gases". The main objective of those who will receive means from fund, to make results of the works as property of people.
On a photo the installation constructed on a formula 1.
- "Installation consists of the fire chamber placed in a cap and integrated with it in uniform space through a dry seam on a formula, "The lower tier and a fire chamber are united in uniform space and make the lower cap" (it is the heatgenerator), and a number of secondary caps. Each secondary cap and the heatgenerator connects among themselves through an opening in the lower part. The secondary cap has in the lower part an exit in the pipe, or in the general pipe through a smoke chamber".
Each secondary cap contains a retort (or other device, for example the heat exchanger). Regulation of extent of heating of a retort and power of burning is made due to redistribution of the movement of streams of hot gases. Burning of parogaz happens only in a heatgenerator fire chamber.
Each cap, secondary cap or the kolpakovy furnace may contain the heat exchanger in the form of registers of a water copper, heater of air heating, a retort for fuel pyrolysis, technological materials, the equipment, the device, etc.".
Now in the World combustion of solid fuel happens in two stages:
- Expensive and power-intensive production phase pellet, briquette, etc.;
- Burning pellet on extent of automation, is organized at the level of gas and a solyara.
In the SDG system at creation of gas-generating installations on any of formulas it is possible to use crude fuel as his drying to be made due to heat of flue gases, and in the adjustable mode. That is the expensive and power-intensive stage of preparation of fuel is excluded.
Regulation of power of burning at the same time, happens without reduction of efficiency. In the SDG system there is a possibility of creation of the mechanism of vacuum drying of fuel due to heat of flue gases.
The structure, properties and exit of parogaz depends on degree and the speed of heating of fuel. At low-temperature heating that is shown during an initial stage of pyrolysis, парогаз is, in fact, heterogeneous mix not ready to effective burning. Moreover, at temperatures less than 150 degrees from a retort water vapor which can extinguish a burning torch are emitted.
In the SDG system there is an opportunity to bring парогаз, received at low-temperature pyrolysis, to extent of molecular crushing and to prepare for effective burning due to heating in the high-temperature oxygen-free environment.
The list of the used literature:
- Under G.F. Knorre's edition, "Introduction to the theory of furnace processes", M of 1968;
- D.B. Ginzburg. Gasification of solid fuel. Gosstroyizdat, 1958.
- A.N. Kislitsin. "Wood pyrolysis: chemism, kinetics, products, new processes". Moscow. Forest industry of 1990;
- E.D. Levin, Theoretical bases of production of charcoal. 1980. Forest industry, Moscow;
- Yu.D. Yudkevich, S.N. Vasilyev, V.I. Yagodin. Receiving chemical products from wood waste. St.-Petersburg 2002;
- "Combustion of fuel and optimum …" http://www.stove.ru/index.php? lng=0&rs=168;
- New system of combustion of fuel and prospect of its application. http://stove.ru/index.php? lng=0&rs=173;
- "Gas-generating coppers …" http://www.stove.ru/index.php? lng=0&rs=126;
- "Installation of charcoal-burning of charcoal in the system of the free movement of gases" http://www.stove.ru/index.php? lng=0&rs=124;
I.V. Kuznetsov. ph. 7 (343)3077303 e-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org; http://stove.ru
PS is added to the presentation 8/25/2010.
16.12.2007 © Igor Kuznetsov "Kuznetsov's stoves"